The Municipality of Binalbagan is situated 62 kilometers south of Bacolod City, the capital of the Province of Negros Occidental. With a coordinate of latitude 10°8’N and longitude 122° 54’E, it is bounded on the North by the Municipality of Hinigaran, on the Northwest by the Municipality of Isabela, on the East by the Municipality of La Libertad, Negros Oriental, on the Southeast by the Municipality of Jimalalud, Negros Oriental, on the South by the City of Himamaylan and on the West by the Gulf of Panay. Travel time from Bacolod City via public transport is 1 ½ hours and 1 hour by private vehicle.
The total land area of Binalbagan is 18,540 hectares or approximately185.40 sq. Kilometers, representing 2.3% of the total land area of Negros Occidental which is792.607 hectares or 7,926.07 sq. Kilometers
There are two distinct geographical areas in the Municipality – the eastern and the western parts. Forming the western part is an extensive plain level. The eastern part consists of hills and mountains.
Generally, six (6) slope categories are found in Binalbagan. Level and gently sloping grounds (0-3°) which are suited for intensive agriculture and high density urban development comprise the largest area of 5,781.77 hectares or 31.18% of the total land area. Gently sloping to undulating grounds (3 – 8°) which is recommended fro intensive agriculture but with carefully planned erosion measures, medium urban density development and orchard development comprise the smallest area of 20.49 hectares or 0.11% of the total land area.
Undulating to rolling terrain which has limited arability and crop sustainability, and suited for low density urban development and orchard development compose a total area of 3,2589.33 hectares or 17.58% of the total land area. Rolling to hilly terrain (18 – 30°) best suited for pasture comprises 2,113.56 hectares or 11.40% of the total land area of the municipality.
Steep hills and mountains (30 – 50°) best suited for pasture and forest comprise 3,016.46 hectares or 16.27% of the total land area. Very steep hills and mountains (50° and over) which is best suited for forest comprise a total area of 4,349.399 or 2.3.46% of the total land area. The areas with hills and mountains are barangay Amontay, Santol, Biao and portions of barangay Payao. The rest of the Barangays in Binalbagan are located in the lowlands.
Binalbagan is composed of seven (7) rural barangays namely: Amontay, Biao, Bagroy, Marina, Payao, Santol and San Juan. It has nine (9) urban barangays: Canmoros, Enclaro, Pagla-um, Progreso, San Jose, San Pedro, San Teodoro, Sto. Rosario and San Vicente.
Three of the urban barangays are located along the coastline. These are: Enclaro, Canmoros and San Juan. These barangays are composed of small clusters of residences called sitios.
The Climate of Binalbagan is monsoonal and is divided into two seasons: the wet and dry seasons. The wet season from the months of May to November starts when the southwest monsoon bringing moist air that give out much rainfall. The dry season from December to April coincides with the northeast monsoon with air coming from the northeast.
Its moisture contents considerably dry up after crossing the high mountain ranges of the Bicol region, Masbate and the two provinces of Mindoro leaving little raindrops for the southern portion of the Province of Negros Occidental particularly the Municipality of Binalbagan.
April and May are the hottest months of the year in Binalbagan with the hottest mean temperature on 25.90 o C. This happens when the Siberian winter breeze crosses the Philippines to the south. Binalbagan is not so much affected by the worst tropical storms and typhoons like most places in the Philippines are experiencing.
Climate under Type C
Type C Climate-Moist; rain sufficiently distributed with most 4.5 dry months; 0.33 or more, but less than 0.60. Regions with this climate type include a large portion of the valleys and plains of northern and central Luzon; Western Masbate; Eastern Palawan; Southern Panay; Central Negros; Eastern Cebu and a tiny area in Northern Mindanao.
Binalbagan receives its copious rainfall during the wet season. Like other municipalities in the southern part of the province average maximum precipitation was observed during the month of August when the average of 1124.5 mm. was recorded for a period of five (5) years starting in 1886 to 1990. During heavy rains, floods occur. Floods prone areas in the poblacion are the Binalbagan public markets areas, Barangay San Teodoro and Cagamayan in San Vicente and pucato0d in Payao. The heaviest flooding occurred during Typhoon Nitang in 1990 when Tanulo River, Alimango River and Tanate River overflowed, flood immediate and adjacent areas .
There are eight (8) series of soil in Binalbagan listed as follows: Hydrosol, Guimbala-on Clay,Obando Sand and Rough Mountainous Lan